Wood species

Here you can find out all the important information on the economically significant wood species, in particular those used in construction and civil engineering, gardens and landscaping.

To be able to distinguish the various types, their typical characteristics are described. This detailed account of their physical and technical qualities, such as their workability, durability and permeability, will enable you to select the appropriate wood type for a particular application field, based on their strengths and weaknesses.


With almost 100 different species, the pine is one of the most common conifers in the northern hemisphere. The Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) can be found in the whole of Europe, also spreading north-eastwards as far as Siberia.


As a solid wood, the spruce (Picea abies) is the most used conifer in Germany.


Indigenous to Europe, the Silver Fir (Abies alba) is is one of around 50 Abies species that belong to the pine (Pinaceae) family.


The Larch (Larix decidua) is the only native conifer species to shed its needles in autumn. Larch wood is particularly known for its decorative colouring.

Douglas fir

The Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is a tree from the Douglas family (Pseudotsuga spp.), which only has six species, four native to East Asia and two in the western regions of North America. Since the 19th century, the Douglas fir has been cultivated in Europe and for around 120 years in Germany, too.


The oaks (Quercus spp.) are a sub-species of the beech family (Fagaceae), with over 400 species worldwide. In Europe, two species are native: the Sessile oak and the Common oak. In Germany, mainly in mixed woodlands, the Sessile oak is predominant.


The beech (Fagus spp.) belongs to the beech family (Fagaceae). Two species are native to Europe. In the mountains of south-eastern Europe, the northern Asia Minor region, northern Iran and in the Caucasus, the oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) is found, whereas the copper beech (Fagus sylvatica) ranges from southern Scandinavia to Sicily.

Black locust

Initially introduced to Europe from North America as an ornamental plant, the Black Locust has proved itself an economically very useful timber. For forestry operation, the tree is of great interest, as it is able to bind nitrogen with the help of bacteria living on its root system.


In recent years, the heavy wood types from the Shorea sub-species have been increasingly gaining importance. The timbers of this group, covering roughly 20 species of tree, are known in the Malaysian language region as “Balau" or, due to the yellowish colouring of the freshly cut timber, “Yellow Balau". The commonly occurring and highly valued wood from the Shorea laevis species is traded in Indonesia under the name “Bangkirai”.


Spruce (Picea abies)

Larch (Larix decidua)

Oak (Quercus spp.)

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)